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Tiger

Why this animal?


I chose the tiger because they have always interested me. The tiger has many different behaviors around certain types of animals or people. Tigers are so powerful and I would like to know how they use that power around them in the environment. Tigers can survive in many different locations and I find that fascinating. Tigers are nature's beauty in animal form. The black stripes across the orange fur, makes every tiger look like a king. I was born in 1998, and in Chinese, that's "year of the tiger". I have always wanted to know what they mean to people.Tigers are mysterious and that makes me wonder about how they started out before people and other things killed a lot of them. My favorite animal has always been a tiger and that is why I am interested in learning about this animal.




Food Web:







Research Location: Russia, Primorsky Krai



My research location is Primorsky Krai in Eastern Russia. Many Siberian tigers have been found in this area and so I am visiting the area. Russia is part of the gigantic taiga biome. My research tells me that in the summer, the days are warm and short and in the winter days are long and cold. The temperature always is constantly moving. The average temperature between the two seasons in a taiga biome is -65° F to 70°F. I am here, in Primorsky Krai. I have come here in the summer to see how tigers survive in the difficult biome to survive in. It is very hot and humid. I am wearing a tank top and shorts. My guide keeps telling me to be prepared for rain every day. He tells me that the average rainfall here is 12-33 centimeters. Doing my research before, I know that tigers don’t normally bother humans, but just in case, I always have a guide with me at all times to watch my back. I want to look around the forest before I set up my camp so I know what to expect while I am here. I see trees everywhere I look. I think I might dream about trees tonight! I know from my research that a lot of these trees are coniferous. Coniferous trees have needles that adapt well to the environment. They have a thick coating to protect it. I see a lot of first and pine trees and spruces. The greenness all over has surrounded me. I look over and see some broadleaf trees. They are very big trees, and they have a lot of branches and leaves. Overhead I heard this noise. I follow the noise and see a leopard. This is very rare because these animals are endangered and there are only about 60 remaining in the wild. Many different types of animals have looked at me with a weird look. I have seen small animals such as a snowshoe hare, and a porcupine so far. I have noticed that the rabbit isn’t the same color as it was in the research paper. These rabbits have brown fur in the summer to blend in with the ground and the trees. They start to shed and change their fur to white. I saw the porcupine wander around looking for food. I know the porcupine is an herbivore, so it must have been looking for some nuts, or berries. I haven’t seen any real big animals, but I know I will in my trip.
I head back to camp, right by the Ussuri River. The Ussuri River is the longest river in the Primorsky area. The Siberian tiger could easily get water from the river. The animals I have seen could easily be a tiger’s meal for the day. The Siberian tiger depends on the trees for blocking wind, and acting as a camouflage. Siberian tigers need this biome because if they were somewhere else, that long, thick fur wouldn’t do them any good. The tiger’s striped coat also serves as a camouflage for them. The orange and black fur, blends in with the light of the sunlight. Tigers are needed in this biome. There are a lot of herbivores in this biome and if they overpopulate, you will need carnivores to take some away. This striped beauty is designed to stay alive by its body. The Siberian tiger has giant paws. The paws help it run fast and to kill prey easily. The Siberian tiger has learned to adapt to the nighttime with its eyes. A tiger has great night vision, so the tiger can see where its going dodging all those trees, and to find supper. They also have very sensitive hearing and smelling. The biome the tiger is in would have many sounds and smells. The Siberian tiger needs those to sniff out things that they actually need. Trees, bushes, and snow are very good hiding spots for a tiger to lie. Tiger’s are the top dog, well I should say cat, in the area. They are the tertiary consumer and their job is to stay that way, and stay alive. I will get back to you with more information after I discover more. Hopefully I can tell you about what I see tomorrow. I hope it is the majestic Siberian tiger.





I took this picture when I was outside of the forest. Tigers live here too
I took this picture when I was outside of the forest. Tigers live here too







Wildlife Monitoring Technique:





look at these two files at the same to understand them





Observation Journal:


Day 1-

Finally, I am up from the long night. I actually think I heard a tiger sound in the middle of the night! Today, I am going to set up motion cameras with my guide. The research group that I came to already had tags and collars on the tigers for monitoring them by telemetry. Using telemetry, we can see where the tigers are and what they are doing. I learned from other researchers in the site that tigers leave scent marks on certain trees, so I am going to find those trees and set up a camera nearby. I head out into the forest. There are tall, big, and green trees everywhere I looked. I could barely see the sky through the leaves. My guide and I found the perfect tree. I set up the camera and started heading back to camp. I turned around and some dark animal was under the trees far away. I think it was an Armur Tiger! Siberian Tigers tend to camouflage in with what is around them because the stripes on the fur, break up the body outline. I saw the tiger's mouth get bigger and bigger. I could see those giant razor teeth. Those are used for catching the prey easier and killing it. I was too stunned to get my camera. Sorry it was so exciting! It just stood there starring at me or at animals around. Once I calmed myself down, I grabbed my camera and zoomed in on it. I looked at the Siberian Tiger and noticed one thing at the moment. It had gigantic paws! These paws were good for walking long distances, and it would help them catch their prey better. I took some pictures to analyze later and I slowly walked back to the camp and told everyone about my meet with a tiger! We sat around inside the big tent, told our adventures for the day, and got ready for bed. I am going to get up at around three in the morning to check the telemetry monitor.

Day 2-

Good morning everyone! You are probably wondering why I am up so early, but I am checking to see what some of the tigers are or were doing! I walked over to the telemetry monitor and saw a bunch of lines and circles. Every fifteen minutes, the telemetry towers tagged where the tigers were. I noticed there were two lines that were always right beside each other. The mother tiger always stays with the baby until it is three to four years old. No line was close to the next. Tigers normally hunt on their own unless they have a cub, because it is easier for them to hide, and catch their prey. When I talked to the camp, they said they only tagged one male because they were harder to find and tag. I found the male tiger's line and it was really far away. I did research on males and females, and I found out that the male tiger stays as far away as possible from the female until mating season. I stayed out there for an hour longer to see what would happen to the tigers. I was mainly focusing on the male tiger for tonight. I saw that it stayed in one spot for more about a half of an hour. I think it was eating. At the very last minute I was getting ready to go, I saw something. The tigers went back to their original spots that they were in when I came in except for one. The female was by the river. That means that they got some water. That must be where they sleep. Well, I am getting pretty tired, I will try to write in my journal later.


Day 3-

I finally woke up after an exciting night! I am going to go out and check the motion cameras today with my guide. As I head out into the forest, I am wondering what a tiger does in the day. I hoped the camera would show us some parts. I get the big camera that is strapped around the tree, and got the chip out with all the pictures on it. I ran back to the site and quickly hooked it into a laptop. The camera only took three pictures! I was sad. I looked at them for a little bit, and then I saw something very interesting. I looked at one picture and there was this animal. I researched it and it was a rabbit of some sort. I then looked at the next picture and it was the tiger. I thought about a symbiotic relationship between the two, but there isn’t really and animal that a tiger doesn’t necessarily eat. I would put this relationship under predator/prey. I am going to show you the picture of the tiger. I really think it is looking at the rabbit and is getting ready to sneak up on it. In the background, I saw another tiger. Tigers have a commensalism relationship between themselves because one tiger kills an animal, and another can eat some of the meat too. I didn’t really have any luck, but tomorrow I will be watching the team get a tiger, and put a collar on it for tracking. I will give you some pictures and some video footage of when we release it.

Day 4-

I am so excited for today! I get to see the trained experts put a collar on a tiger. I double-checked to see if I had my video camera and my camera and I was set. I was told I had to stay back at the site until they caught a tiger because it wasn’t safe. All of the sudden, I got a phone call! I was jumping for joy and quickly ran off into the big trees. I found the tiger lying there. I felt bad for it at first because it was just there. But I knew it wouldn’t harm the tiger and it is for a good cause. The vet checks the big female to see if it was healthy. The team said that I got to name her. I was so excited! I decided to name her Lidiya. The vet said she was pregnant so I was depressed to leave because I wanted to see her cubs! I am sure that they will have a niche in this world. It is sad that the limiting factors have to take out these cute animals. We took measurements of her, and weighed her and waited until she got back to normal. I left early because I wanted to explore around to see if I could find a tiger just wandering around. I saw a flash in the horizon I saw a tiger! I followed it around for about half an hour. I kept my distance the whole time though. I got some of it on video, but the other part was kind of boring so I will just explain it. I was following the tiger, and it was headed to the river, and I watched it get huge gulps of water. I think tigers just relax all day until night. That is when they bring out their fierce side! I would have rather watched a tiger at night, but it is way to dangerous to be out there. Tigers can kill humans very easily. Speaking of night, I better get back to the camp to eat my beans cooked over a fire! Night!

The men are putting the collar on Lidiya
The men are putting the collar on Lidiya
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This tiger was looking pretty hungy. It looks like it just got back from the river.








this is of when I was following the tiger


Day 5- today is my last day here in Russia and it is sad. I took a last look at the motion cameras and got a lot of pictures! I will show you them all. I got a lot out of this trip and hope to be back one day seeing more tigers here roaming the forest and mountains. I was so lucky I was given the chance to see these beautiful creatures up close. I was grateful for the WCS to give me a place on the team. They said they would send me pictures of the babies and of them when they find Lidiya’s cubs! Well, I better pack for the big plane ride ahead of me. Bye!
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Notice how these two top tigers don't have the same distinct markings.
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This one is very muddy, I think it was by the river.
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This tiger wasnt afraid of the camera! Or it didn't know it was there!



I don’t know how long I have been back in the United States or how long I have written in my journal, but Lidiya had her cubs! They are so beautiful. The team put collars on them right away, and they have been getting bigger and bigger, so they had to re-collar them already! Here are some pictures:
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Measuring the neck size to refit the collar
Measuring the neck size to refit the collar





Facts about the tiger:







Using the Research:








Researcher Profile:









Bibliography:

"The Amur Tiger: Ecology." Amur Tiger Ecology. Wildlife Conservation Society. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www.wcsrussia.org/Wildlife/AmurTigers/Ecology/tabid/1467/language/en-US/Default.aspx>.

"Information and Factsabout Tigers." Tiger Facts and Information. Bio Expedition. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. <http://www.tigers-world.com/>.

"Siberian Tiger." National Geographic. National Geographic. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. <http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/siberian-tiger/>.

"Siberian Tiger Project." Home. Wildlife Conservation Society. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. <http://www.wcsrussia.org/Projects/SiberianTigerProject/tabid/1222/language/en-US/Default.aspx>.

"Tiger Projects." 21st Century Tiger. 21st Century Tiger. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www.21stcenturytiger.org/index.php?pg=projects>.

"TIGERS - Adaptations for a Forested Environment." SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS. Seaworld/Busch Gardens. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/tiger/adaptations.htm>.