White_tiger_cubs_standing.jpgwhite_tigers.jpg
Introduction
Animal: Bengal White Tiger, Indian Tiger
Scientific Name: Panthera Tigris
Research Location: Southeastern/ Central Asia and Southern India
Quote:
'You, young man, are intelligent, honest, vivacious fellow in this crowd of thugs and idiots. In any jungle, what is the rarest of animals - the creature that comes along only once in a generation?'
I thought about it and said: 'The White Tiger.'
From The White Tiger by Aravind Adiga

Why This Animal?
I choose the White Tiger for my animal because; they are different from the other tigers I have seen in zoos. They are white with black stripes instead of orange and black stripes. They have blue eyes and a pink nose. Most White tigers are in captivity though so that will affect my results. Also to me they are very beautiful and gorgeous. I have seen a white tiger before at the Omaha Zoo before. Most of them are extinct in places of the world some, of the White Tigers that are extinct are:
Bali tiger: extinct
Javan tiger: extinct
South Chinese tiger: extinct in the wild
Caspian tiger: extinct
Another reason why I am interested in this animal is that they eat animals that are either bigger than them or a little smaller. What I find shocking is that in about 100 years only 12 white tigers have been seen in the wild habitats of India. Also, they are great swimmers which I find odd since they are sort of a cat like animal.

Extinction Due to:
- Disease spread by the Tsetse Fly
- Illegal poaching for profit and shaman medicine
- Stress from human contact while in captivity
- Inbreeding, because of depleted gene pools

Videos: These are some videos of the Bengal White Tiger in captivity. It is hard to find actual video footage of this animal since it is basically extinct. The videos I could find were them in captivity. Captivity for this animal might have some affect on how the interact with the environment of which they are in. These videos will give you a view of what these type of animals might be like out in the wild.





Research Location: Southeastern/ Central Asia (China) and Southern India
Biome: Southeastern/ Central Asia (China): Tropical Rainforest
Southern India: Tropical Evergreen Forests/ Tropical Rainforest
Tropical Deciduous Forests
Temperate Coniferous Forests/ Temperate Needle Leaf Forests
Temperate Broad- Leaf Forests
Climate: Southeastern/ Central Asia (China): Warm, humid tropics, wet and dry periods which change seasons and are associated with rainfall
Southern India: Tropical climate, with little difference between summer and winter. In coastal regions it will get very humid and hot during the day. At nighttime the tempeature is a cool and have a sea breeze. The lowest temperature recorded is 20 degrees celsius.
Temperature: In both countries the temperature ranges from 60- 80 degrees Farnheit
Vegetation: Southeastern/ Central Asia (China): Bengal Bamboo: Temperature: 40 degrees Fahrenheit- 100 degrees Fahrenheit, Growth: 40- 80 feet in height
Durian: Growth: 90 to 130 feet (sub- canopy tree) Enviroment: Lowland Rainforest
Jambu: Type: Fruit and edible, Growth: 10 to 20 feet in height
Mangrove Forests: Enviroment: edge of tropics, Protect: coastline and prevent erosion by collecting sediment from the rivers/ streams
Strangler Figs: Important: most important plant species of a rainforest ecosystem (provides food to many animals)
Southern India: Durian: Growth: 90 to 130 feet (sub- canopy tree) Enviroment: Lowland Rainforest
Jambu: Type: Fruit and edible, Growth: 10 to 20 feet in height
Mangrove Forests: Enviroment: edge of tropics, Protect: coastline and prevent erosion by collecting sediment from the rivers/ streams
Strangler Figs: Important: most important plant species of a rainforest ecosystem (provides food to many animals)
Animals in area: Southeastern/ Central Asia (China)- Giant Panda, Tiger, Flying Fish, Mongoose, Elephant, Pheasant, Java Peacock, Malayan Tapicr, Anoa, Gibbon, Black Leapard, Komodo Dragon
Upper Southeastern Asia: Snow Leopard, Yak, Musk Deer
Why they strive here: These animals strive in this environment because it is more of a humid and warm weather. Which means they need a lighter coat and need water to stay cool in these temperatures. The animals shown have very unique skin and coats. For instance my animal that I choose the Bengal White Tiger loves to swim which; it does to stay cool during hot periods of time in the year. While the Komodo Dragon has no fur, it has a skin like a reptile.
Southern India: Indian Asiatic Lion, Bengal Tiger, Indian Black Bear, Indian Black Buck, Indian Camel, Indian Clouded Leopard, Indian Deer, Indian Elephant, Indian Langur, Indian Leopard, Indain Macaque, Indian Red Panda, Indain Rhinoceros, Indian Snow Leopard, Indian Striped Hyena, Indaian Wild Ass, Indian Wild Boar
Why they strive here: In this area the climate and area is a little different. This has more of a tropical feeling. Meaning cooler at nighttime, not so humid, little to no difference between summer and winter. These animals strive in this type of region because most these animals were built for a more hot climate. Such as the Indian Camel, this animal was built for going long distances and storing water in its humps. Where the Bengal White Tiger is use to going not so far from home and not having places to store its water.
Picture of Enviroment:
Southeastern Asia and Southern India
rainforest_southeastern_asia.jpgsouthern_india_forest.jpg

Map:
Southeastern Asia and Southern India
Southeastern_asia.jpgsouthindia-map.jpg

Diet in Zoo's: They eat meat five days a week. Some of the meats they eat are:
-Chicken
-Horsemeat
-Kangaroo
Also, they fast on bones twice a week. So, basically the days they don't get meat they are fasting on bones of some sort.

Food Web: Bengal White Tiger



Wildlife Monitoring Technique:
For my wildlife monitoring technique would be catch and release. For this I would have to be careful, because I could not tag a baby cub. Why, because if the mother smells you on her cub, she won’t take care of the cub. This means I would be killing one of the cubs, which wouldn’t help since they are going extinct. For his type of monitoring I would need a tranquilizer, because these animals are giant and could hurt you with one hit from its paw. Which I find would not be such a good thing. Also, how we would do this would be shooting them with a tranquilizer then making a small incision which I would input a little GPS tracking device. This would tell us where it is located also, we have it so it will tell us if the Bengal White Tiger is moving, resting, or dead. This type of tracking will be good for my animal, because we won’t be near it and harming it environment. Also, this will help us with bringing back the population of Bengal White Tigers.
GPS: Global Positioning System
Picture GPS Microchip used: gps_tracking_device_alex_r.jpg
Map:


white_tiger_in_water.jpgwhite_tiger_roaring_showing_teeth.jpg
Adaptation:
Physical: Powerful hind limbs and flexible backbone- quickly chase and catch prey over short distance
Hind limbs are longer than the forelimbs- adaptation for jumping
Forelimbs and shoulders are well- muscled, and forelegs can twist inward- tiger to grab and hold larger prey
Soft pads (feet) - allows tigers to sneak up on prey
Forefeet have five claws- attacking prey and having a grip
Hind feet have four claws- help bring down large prey, and defense against other tigers
Front and back claws- help climb trees
Jaws are short- powerful
Incisor teeth- grab hold of prey as well as pull meat off bones
Canine teeth- biting and killing
Premolars and molars- tearing and chewing
Fur color- helps camouflage, in tall white grass
Behavioral: Mother and child- mother protects child
White tigers are very territorial. They live a solitary way of life. Also, travel in groups of 3-4 tigers. They travel in a group this size, because it is for protection and mostly females travel with cubs and other female families. The females are usual together, because they are smaller and weaker than the male Bengal White Tigers.

Observation Journal
Day 1: I can’t believe I actually had the opportunity to come here to Southeastern Asia, to see the Bengal White Tiger. This is going to be hard, because the Bengal White Tiger is very hard to find. Not many people have seen it and are able to record much data. That is why I have chosen to take this opportunity. My goal is to find or see at least one or two of them. Also, my transportation will be a 2012 Jeep Wrangler, because it can travel on any type of land, I’ve heard and seen the reviews. Also, it has more horsepower than ever. My other sort of transportation will be by foot for times when we can’t get through those hard passes/ trails. My main goal is to see what the Bengal White Tiger is like in its natural state of being. Then I want to see how it goes with the environment. Also, I am going to try to get the Bengal White Tiger back on top from extinction. The people in those countries use its fur and meat to survive, which I find harsh and cruel.
Day 1.5: As I am entering the forest now, I hear many animals making noises. Also, the temperature is 78 degrees Fahrenheit. There is many different types of vegetation, it is mostly trees and vines. Many of the trees limbs and leaves hang down from the branches. As we are traveling further and further many animals are running and hiding. We decided to walk now, because it would be easier and wouldn’t scare the animals. As we were walking through the forest I noticed that many animals are afraid of us. So, I decide to set up cameras and see if after we left they come back out. This idea was so brilliant, I decide to leave the forest after it was all setup and done.
Day 2: Our video cameras that we set up were a success, we caught many different animals. Such as:
- Elephant
- Java Peacock
- Mongoose
- Malayan Tapicr
As you saw we didn’t get any Bengal White Tiger, so we decide to go deeper into the Southeastern Asia Tropical Forest. We kept our cameras there just in case a Bengal White Tiger decide to pass by that way. As we set up more cameras around the Tropical Forest we found a bed that looks like where a big animal has slept. So, we decide to put two cameras in that locations just in case it was were the tiger slept. Since the Bengal White Tiger loves to swim and is a great swimmer. We decide to go and find a water resource in which we think it might use. As we come up towards the water source or the river. We see a Bengal White Tiger! We are so shocked and ecstatic, but we have to stay calm and a few yards away for safety of us and the animal. The Bengal White Tiger right now is bending over to get a drink of water from the river. Now it is about to jump in and go for a swim, this is astounding what is happening. This is pry once in a lifetime chance I get to see my animal in its own environment. I am pry the luckiest female alive to be witnessing this moment at this time. It seems that the Bengal White Tiger went to go grab some food to increase its metabolism. Bengal White Tiger came out with a Flying Fish as it source of food. This is amazing, now my animal that I am studying is lying down under a tree to stay cool and away from the sun’s harmful rays. It is now eating the Flying Fish and seems to enjoy its food. We set up cameras around this area, because this is where we discovered my amazing animal.
Metabolism- provides energy for your body
Picture of Bengal White Tiger Swimming:
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Day 3: Since we started using a small GPS microchip to start tracking these animals, we have had a success with locating their movements and started to understand how this animal goes through its day here. But, we need to be carful around these aniamls since they are going extinct. We will be only tagging the adult females and males. We mustonly tag the adults due to the mothers. If we tag a baby Bengal White Tiger we may be jepardizing there life, because the mother would smell our scent on her young and not take care of them which would lead to death. Which we would not want to happen. While we were tracking these animals we notice they rest quite often. Which must say that these animals are like dogs and sleep most of the day or just relax. We found that averaging the time they are resting, mainly sleeping is 16- 18 hours a day.
Day 4: Today we found a male and female White Tiger at different times in the day. So, we decided to tag them. We tranquilized them, so we wouldn't be harming them and they couldn't be able to hurt or harm us. By doing this we are getting information to see if they are healthy and how they are surviving here.
Male Indian Tiger:
Weight: 505 pounds, this is around the average weight for the male. The male Bengal White Tiger average is from 440.924524- 507.063203 pounds.
Length: 9 feet and 10.109357 inches
Age: By taking some blood samples we figured this male was around 2.5 years old.
Female Indian Tiger:
Weight: 297.624054 pounds, this is around the average weight for females. The female Bengal White Tiger weight ranges from 286.600941- 374.785846 pounds
Length: 8 feet and 2.421875 inches
Age: By taking the blood samples we found that this female Indian Tiger is around 2.5 years old.
By looking at their pattern on their back we found that, it is everywhere, meaning they have stripes all over there body. Also, no stripes are the same. The striped pattern they have isn't just on their fur, but is a pigmentation of the skin. Which I find very interesting. Also, we found on the back of their ears thy have a white dot and it looks like an eye. Also, we found that their striped fur helps them blend in with long tall grass.
Pigmentation: Coloration, especially of the skin

Fellow Researcher Profile
Website: http://www.wcsrussia.org/Projects/SiberianTigerProject/tabid/1222/language/en-US/Default.aspx
What I've learned from them: Due lack of researchers of the Bengal White Tiger, it was very hard to find fellow researchers. I found a website of some researchers. These people don’t research the Bengal White Tiger, but they research a tiger that is close to it. The group I found name is the WCS Russia, short for the Wildlife Conservation Society. One of their projects is called the Siberian Tiger Project. The goal for them is to collect scientific information on the tiger ecology for use in conservation plans. The wildlife monitoring technique they use is radio- tracking. WCS specialist have studied the Siberian Tiger’s social structure, land use patterns, food habits, reproduction, mortality, and relationship with other species, including humans. Their current research is in cub mortality, dispersal and survivorship, comparison of density estimation techniques, and understanding the relationship between poaching and population structure and dynamics. The main involvement in for these animals is tiger- human conflicts. Meaning they help local citizens stay safety, also helping the Siberian Tiger with poachers. I have found that both of the tiger they are studying and the one I am are having problems with poachers. I get why the poachers are doing this, I just wish that they wouldn’t, because this is affecting my animal juristically. Then again if poachers are able to find this animal and poach them they must know where the Bengal White Tiger is located. That could be a breakthrough for my research. This foundation is still training the next generation of human’s t come and help the Siberian Tiger come back to the wild and keep the humans in Russia safe. I see this foundation helping these tigers and other animals come back to the wild an amazing thing. I just wish I could have found researchers or foundations for the Bengal White Tiger.
Pictures of them in Action:
WCS_Goodrich_013_small_alex_r.jpg
WCS field staff collect data during capture
of a juvenile Amur tiger.
Photo by John Goodrich, WCS.
WCS_Goodrich_Chuguevski%20Release_small_alex_r.jpg
Victor, a tiger freed from a poacher's snare by WCS
and government response team specialists,
is released back into the wild.
Photo by John Goodrich, WCS.
SvetaandLydiaCub013_small_alex_r.jpg
Graduate student Svetlana Soutyrina
with a recently collared tiger cub.
Photo by Dale Miquelle, WCS.


Using the Research: The main limiting factor for the Bengal White Tiger is humans in its area. This is due to the fact that people there are illegally poaching for profit. Also, for the shaman medicine, since they are seen for high value. They also have stress from our contact while they are in captivity, which I find we should try not to stress them anymore. Also, if we touch there young, meaning hand to fur, not glove to fur. This would be affecting the mother, because her young wouldn’t have her scent which would make her not accept her young.
Due to the lack of depleting gene pools they are forced to inbreed. This has made breeding these animals hard, since there are very few left here on earth. I find very heart breaking.
Like all animals there are diseases, the main disease for the Bengal White Tiger is spread by the Tsetse Fly. There really isn’t anything we could do about the fly. But we could get a specimen of the disease then, create a cure for this disease which might help the Bengal White Tiger come back from mainly being extinct.
Also, as we know it there habitat is disappearing due to native people moving in and tearing their habitat down. I know that is part of the human way. If you get a bigger population you expand your city or town. Still, if we have been able to protect other animals and keep their habitat. I think we could do the same for the Bengal White Tiger. Also, since not many Bengal White Tigers have been seen in their natural habitat. I think we should start reintroducing them there. Another thing is since we haven’t seen many in the wild we should get a team of experts and have them start setting up cameras and so on… This would help us see how they act and possibly help us bring them back into the world from going extinct. I don’t think we should introduce other animals into the Bengal White Tiger’s habitat. Why, well they are mainly almost extinct in the wild and if we would introduce any other animals there, it could just completely have bad effect. Then if we do it could have a good result, you never know till you try. I don’t think you should risk this since they are depleting.

Bibliography:
"WCS Russia." Wildlife Conservation Society. Wildlife Conservation Society, 2008- 2011. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. http://www.wcsrussia.org/Home/tabid/1210/language/en-US/Default.aspx.
"WCS Russia." Wildlife Conservation Society. Wildlife Conservation Society, 2008- 2011. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. http://www.wcsrussia.org/Home/tabid/1210/language/en-US/Default.aspx.
Africa Safari Adventure. "White Tigers." ,White Tiger in Jungles,White Tiger in Indian Jungles. Indian Tiger Welfare Society, 2009. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. http://www.indiantiger.org/white-tigers/.
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Www.worldbiomes.com. "World Biomes - Map." WorldBiomes.com. Www.worldbiomes.com, 30 Oct. 2009. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. http://www.worldbiomes.com/biomes_map.htm.
Chhabra, Deependra. "White Bengal Tiger: WhoZoo." WhoZoo Welcome Page. Deependra Chhabra. Web. 11 Feb. 2012. http://whozoo.org/students/deechh/bengal.htm.
"Wilderness Diagnosis: What Is the White Bengal Tiger's Future?" Actionbioscience. American Institute of Biological Sciences, 2000- 2012. Web. 18 Feb. 2012. http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/mishra.html.
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